This map tells us whether a country’s constitution includes provisions to protect citizens against discrimination in work based on their religion.
Only constitutional provisions are included in this map. Legislative protections are not shown here. Read more about why constitutions matter.
- Broad non-discrimination refers to a general protection against discrimination or guarantee of equal treatment in work (e.g. “No one may be discriminated against in work on the basis of religion”).
- No means that the constitution does not explicitly mention protection against discrimination in work based on religion. This does not mean that the constitution denies this right, but that it does not explicitly include it.
- General protection means that a country’s constitution protects citizens against discrimination in work, but not specifically on the basis of religion.
- Aspirational means that the constitution protects against discrimination in work based on religion but does not use language strong enough to be considered a guarantee. For example, constitutions in this category might state that the country aims to protect against discrimination in work based on religion.
- Guaranteed with exceptions includes cases where the constitution protects the general right, but allows this protection to be curtailed in certain circumstances. For example, a constitution may have a provision allowing laws to restrict certain rights, including the right to nondiscrimination, in order to achieve the fundamental principles to which the constitution aspires. This category does not apply to this map as there are no countries that have exceptions to protection against discrimination in work based on religion.
- Guaranteed means that the constitution protects against discrimination in work based on religion in authoritative language. For example, constitutions in this category might guarantee protection against discrimination in work based on religion or make it the State’s responsibility to ensure this right.
- On mouseover on the map, a note may appear for some countries which indicates “potential positive action”. This is a measure or measures that may be taken to compensate for past discrimination or current inequalities on the basis of religion. Positive action can be framed in guaranteed terms (e.g., “the State shall adopt measures of affirmative action in work for religious minorities”) or in terms that leave open the possibility for positive action (e.g., “Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from taking measures to promote the employment of religious minorities, in order to address past discrimination against them ”).